Mahmud of Ghazni receiving a richly decorated robe of honor from the caliph al-Qadir in 1000. Miniature from the Rashid al-Din’s Jami‘ al-Tawarikh. Edinburgh University Library.

A friend in need… part I

Introduction The Emco team tries to understand the success of the early Islamic empire in its first four centuries. One of the keys to that understanding is to apprehend what possibilities existed for people living in the empire to counter…

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